The second group compares the dispersion of wages between unsured workers and that of employees with an agreement at the enterprise level. The third group compares the dispersion of wages between unsured workers and that of employees to a sectoral agreement. The final group compares the dispersion of wages between employees with an agreement at the company level with that of employees with a sectoral agreement. “Sectoral bargaining” for Australia refers to the use of Modern Awards (see box 3.5). In Australia, there is no adequate collective bargaining at the sectoral level. Norway: 2001 was the first year without a central agreement; Collective bargaining and social dialogue should also support strong economic outcomes that may require that working conditions be sufficiently adapted to economic conditions. This can be achieved by allowing a degree of flexibility at the level of companies or workers or by using mechanisms to coordinate the results of negotiations in different sectors or companies, with an emphasis on macroeconomic performance. In addition, social partners can play a key role in supporting job change and ensuring workers are qualified. The chapter also presents a detailed discussion on how wage coordination works and the characteristics that enable organized decentralisation to simultaneously achieve good labour market outcomes, provide flexibility for businesses and support the ability to adapt to structural changes. The main conclusions are the 12 ←.
The classification of countries in these categories of collective bargaining systems inevitably implies some simplification. The in-depth discussion of Chapter 2 should therefore be taken into account when comparing and evaluating the functioning of the different negotiating systems between countries. Even in countries where collective bargaining plays an important role at the corporate level, it is often limited to large and medium-sized enterprises. To extend social dialogue to all components of society, some governments have sought to promote social dialogue in small businesses. The labour market reform in France in 2017 is an example. As a result, companies with fewer than 20 employees can call on workers to vote on an agreement at the company level, even in the absence of a trade union representative, provided that at least two-thirds of employees support the agreement. It also allowed companies with 20 to 50 employees to negotiate with an elected official, even if this was not explicitly imposed by the unions.